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    The Khorasani school of Sufism. Abu Sa'id. Halat it Sukhunan-i Shaykh Abu Sa 'id ibn Abi 'l-Khayr: Manifestations of Ecstasy (Vecd Tecellileri)

      Faruk Arslan    1        0        Report content

    He links to a grandson of Zeynel Abidin, the son of Huseyin as known as a Sherif.

    One of his love Rubais is well-known:

    Love came and flew as blood in my veins

    Emptied me of myself and filled me with beloved.

    Each part of my being she conquered

    Now a mere name is left to me and the rest is she.

    That was all sorrow, this is all joy

    Those were all words, this is all reality.

    What sweeter than this in the world!

    Friend met friend and the lover joined his Beloved.

    Abū-Sa'īd was born in the village of Mihne, part of Greater Khorasan, today located near Torbat-e Heydarieh in Khorāsān-e Razavī Province. His father was a herbalist and physician with an interest in Sufism. He then moved and lived a few years in the city of Nishapur, and subsequently moved back to Meyhaneh after a few years. Abū-Sa'īd’s formal education included Islamic scholarship and Arabic literature that he continued until the age 23 when he left them for Sufism. He also traveled to and spent time in small towns around the same province visiting other Sufis or his teachers.

    Arslan olduğum sürece ormanda karşıma çıkan Leoparı kovalıyordum. Birdenbire düşündüm ve kendime geldim, ne yapıyordum. Gerçekte Kalbimde sadece Allah aşkına yer var oysa. Tuhaf ama Kurnaz bir tilki geldi, beni ormandan çıkardı. Ebu Said Ibni Abil Hayr, Hz. Zeynel Abidin torunu.

    Hazrat Abu Said bin A'bil Khair was born in 967 AD in Mayhana, (modern
    Turkmenistan*) and was buried there in 1049 AD Dr Sharib says:-

    He held a special reverence for earlier Sufis, especially Bayazid Bastami and Hallaj. Moreover, in Asrar al-Tawhid, Tazkiratul Awliyā and Noorul Uloom it has been written that Abū-Sa'īd went for the visit of Shaikh Abul Hassan Kharaqani and got deeply influenced by his personality and state.

    Abu Sa'id died in A.D. 1049, and the Asraru 'l-taw ~id was probably completed not less than 120 or more than 150 years later. As Zhukovski points out, it is almost the first example in Persian of a separate work having for its subject the life of an individual mystic. The portrait of Abu Sa'id amidst the circle of Sufis and dervishes in which he lived is drawn with extraordinary richness of detail, and gains in vividness as well as in value from the fact that a great part of the story is told by himself. Although the Mohammedan system of oral tradition by which these autobiographical passages have been preserved forbids us to suppose that we have before us an exact transcript of Abu Sa'id's words as they were spoken to the original reporter, there is no reason to doubt that in most cases the substance of them is given correctly. His own veracity is not incontestable, but this question, which leads at once into the darkest abysses of psychology. A certain amount of new material is found in the Supplement to Faridu'ddin 'Al tar's Tadhkiratu 'l-Awliya (vol. II of my edition, pp. 322-337) and Jami's Nafa ~ atu 'l-Uns (ed. by Nassau Lees, No. 366).

    Abū-Sa'īd insists that his teachings and Sufism as a whole are the true meaning of Islam. He based his teachings on the mystic interpretation of verses from Qur’an and some hadiths and was considered a learned Islamic scholar. Nevertheless, his interpretations of Qur’an were considered an ocean of knowledge in exegesis of the Quran.

    To this day this has been one of the causes of criticizing him from a religious point of view. In general he was bold in expressing his mystic opinions as can be seen from his praise of Hallaj who was considered a heretic by most of the Pseudo-Sufis and most ignoramus laymen of the time due to irrelevant conclusions without a depth of support of the great majority of the Islamic scholars of the time and present modern era, although the common opinion about Hallaj changed in time.

    Halat and Asrar in the Kash al-Mahjub

    God gives the dervish love-and love is woe;

    The generous youth will freely yield his life,

    "Be just and live on earth what can?

    "Ah. let us go, whom nature joined of old in friendship fast."

    "Thou deem' st thy being here calamity."

     "If nonsense be all the coin we exchange, then better."

    At Mecca shall I throw off Amongst pilgrims newly come the weeds of a widowed frame."

    "Say to wine, which is a foe to (men's) understandings, ever drawing against them the swords of a warrior."

    Perfect love proceeds from the lover who hopes naught for himself; What is there to desire in that which has a price? Certainly the Giver is better for you than the gift: How should you want the gift, when you possess the very Philosopher's Stone

    There is evidence that Abū-Sa'īd and Avicenna, the Persian physician and philosopher, corresponded with one another. Abū-Sa'īd records several meetings between them in his biography. The first meeting is described as three days of private conversation, at the end of which Abū-Sa'īd said to his followers that everything that he could see (i.e. in visions), Avicenna knew, and in turn Avicenna said that everything he knew Abū-Sa'īd could see, in realistic theory presents the superlative connection between Islamic Saints of God(أولياء,Awliya) revealing the reliability of such spiritual powers as believed to be placed on them by Allah( الله,God).

    If we can believe Abu Sa'id when he declares that in his youth he knew by heart 30,000 verses of pre-Islamic poetry, his knowledge of profane literature must have been extensive 1 . After completing this branch of education, he set out for Merv with the puipose of studying theology under AbU 'Abdallah all:iusri, a pupil of the famous Shafi'ite doctor, Ibn Surayj. He read with al-l:iusri for five years, and with AbU Bakr alQaffal for five more 2 . From Merv he moved to Sarakhs, where he attended the lectures of AbU 'Ali Zalrir3 on Koranic exegesis (in the morning), on systematic theology (at noon), and on the Traditions of the Prophet (in the aftemoon) 4 . Abu Sa'id's birth and death are the only events of his life to which a precise date is attached. We know that he studied at Merv for ten years, and if we assume that his Wanderjahre began at the usual time, he was probably between 25 and 28 when he first came to Sarakhs. Here his conversion to Sufism took place. He has described it himself in the following narrative, which I will now translate without abridgement. I have relegated to the foot of the page, and distinguished by means of square brackets, certain passages that interrupt the narrative and did not form part of it originally.

    Abu Abbas Sa'id is  Ibnu 'l-' Arabi and  Tor Andrae's Die person Muhammeds in lehre und glauben seiner gemeinde (Upsala, 1917) contains by far the best survey that has yet appeared of the sources, historical evolution and general characteristics of the Mohammedan Logos doctrine.Sufism is at once the religious philosophy and the popular religion of Islam. The great Mohanmedan mystics are also saints. Their lives belong to the Legend and contain, besides their lofty and abstruse speculations, an account of the miracles which they wrought. They are the object of endless worship and adoration, their tombs are holy shrines whither men and women come as pilgrims to beseech their all-powerful aid, their relics bring a blessing that only the rich can buy. Whilst still living, they are canonised by the people; not posthumously by the Church. Their title to saintship depends on a peculiarly intimate relation to God, which is attested by fits of ecstasy and, above all, by thaumaturgic gifts (karamat= xapi.uµaTa grazie). Belief in such gifts is almost universal, but there is disagreement as to the importance which should be attached to them. The higher doctrine, that they are of small value in comparison with the attainment of spiritual perfection, was ignored by the mass of Moslems, who would have considered a saint without miracles to be no saint at all. Miracles there must be; if the holy man failed to supply them, they were invented for him. It is vain to inquire how far the miracles of Abu Sa'id may have been the work of popular imagination, but the following extracts show that the question is not an irrelevant one, even if we take for granted the reality of these occult and mysterious powers.

      (karamat). God bless Mohammed and the whole of his Familyl.

     The falak is a pole on which the feet are tied when bastinado is administered. The words "on the falak" refer, no doubt, to the anxious suspense in which the two sceptics awaited the result of their experiment. Cf. our phrase "on the rack." 2 A 240, 9.

    mortification that is gathered and the complete unveiling (kashj) comes to pass; accordingly, eminent mystics have said that states of contemplation are the heritage of acts of sel:fmortification (al-mushCthadat mawarithu 'l-mujahadat). Those who saw him in this state, which is necessarily one of enjoyment and happiness, and were ignorant of his former state denied that which was true (~aqq); and whoever denies the Truth (ff..aqq) is a freethinker (zindiq). There are many analogies to this in the sensible world

    Asceticism and positive religion are thus relegated to the lower planes of the mystical life. The Sufi needs them and must hold fast to them while he is serving his spiritual apprenticeship and also during the middle stage which is marked by longer or shorter intervals of illumination; but in his "last state," when the unveiling is completed, he has no further use for ascetic practices and religious forms, for he lives in permanent communion with God Himself. This leads directly to antinomianism, though in theory the saint is above the law rather than against it. One who sees the reality within cannot judge by appearances. Being told that a disciple of his was lying blind-drank on a certain road.



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